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   City occurrence is closely connected with emancipating war of the Ukrainian people (1648-1654гг.) And reunion of Ukraine with Russia. More three centuries ago, in 1654-1655, being rescued from oppression of the Polish sirs, on territory of a present city which was a part of the Moscow state, the big group of immigrants from Zadneprovia has come and has located on a height, at merge of the rivers Lopani and Kharkov (nowadays the University hill). Immigrants have constructed here the dwellings and have enclosed with their paling. This settlement began to be called as Kharkov by name of the rivers on which coast it has been constructed. The small river Kharkov name was known to the basis of a city and for the first time it is mentioned in 1627. Fortress building has soon begun. In 1656-1659 the first inhabitants of settlement under the guidance of the representative of Russian government in Kharkov - the commander Selifontova have constructed a wooden fortress which was included into system of the strengthenings intended for protection of the southern Russian earths from attacks of the Crimean Tatars. Building of a fortress and other defensive works protecting inhabitants from the predatory attacks, in turn, promoted population increase. Every year the number of immigrants arriving here grew, and soon, not having possibility to take places within a fortress, they have started to lodge round strengthenings. So in second half XVII centuries in Kharkov there were first streets. To one of the first appeared streets of a city became Moscow (now - the Moscow prospectus) on which the road to Moscow lay. Have then appeared the Sumy street, along small river Kharkov - the Belgorod road (now street Shevchenko), and in a southern part of a city - Smieevsky (now - Gagarin's prospectus). From a fortress through Cold Mountain the way to Poltava, and in the end of XVIII century - on Ekaterinoslav lay, therefore this road-street long time was called as Poltava, then Ekaterinoslavsky, at the USSR - street Sverdlova (the present name - Poltava Shlah. In the end of XVII century round the Kharkov fortress there were the settlements which have received the name podgorodnimy by large villages. To the first of them became - the Zalopansky large village. The steel following - Zuravlevka, Panasovka, Goncharovka and others. In 1765 Kharkov became a provincial city - the centre of the Slobodsko-Ukrainian province, and since 1835 - the centre of the Kharkov province. Considerable growth of Kharkov begins with 60 and especially 80th years of XIX century when in connection with cancellation of the serfdom and capitalism development to Russia people, which were without the earth has been compelled to go for earnings to a city. At this time in Kharkov the first railway is laid, such factories, as the Gelferih-garden (nowadays - "the Sickle and the Hammer"), engine-building (now factory of name Malisheva are under construction. In the end of XIX century, with industry and railway junction development, Kharkov becomes large industrial centre. With a victory of the October socialist revolution and formation of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic with 1917 for 1934 with small breaks, Kharkov becomes capital USSR. At this time there is a city rapid growth. New large factories are under construction, develops machine-building and the metal-working industry, develops a railway transportation. So, the mechanical engineering of Kharkov in 1940 gave 40 % of production of all machine engineering industry of Ukraine. The attack of fascist Germany in 1941 has interrupted a creative life of a city. Having occupied a city, fascists have established in it a mode of bloody terror and violence, have ruined hundreds industrial enterprises. On August, 23rd, 1943 armies of Steppe front with active assistance of connections and parts of the Voronezh and Southwest fronts have released Kharkov from fascist aggressors. Has begun big and hard work on its restoration, however the city has been destroyed so, that according to delegations of some the capitalist countries which have visited Kharkov after its clearing, for city restoration it is required nearby 50 years. However, contrary to these forecasts and thanks to self-denying work of the population of a city, in 1950 gross output release has exceeded pre-war level on 21 %, and in 1956 - in 4 times and Kharkov continued to develop. New large inhabited files - Pavlovo Polie, Gagarin's prospectus, Saltovsky, Holodnogorsky, Aleksieevsky, Rogansky and others have grown. The second in Ukraine and sixth in the USSR - the Kharkov underground which opening has taken place on August, 23rd, 1975 became pride of inhabitants and the line carries the name Holodnogorsko-factory. The Saltovsky line of the underground (it is opened on August, 10th, 1984) became following, and already the third line - Aleksieevsky (is opened on May, 06th, 1995) now is completedthat will allow to connect much faster practically all large inhabited files cities.  The city becomes more beautiful and equips with modern conveniences from year to year. On change to old suburbs modern houses come. For today Kharkov totals 9 administrative areas: Dzerzhinsky, Kievsky, Moscowsky, Chervonozavodsky, Octobersky, Kominternovsky, Ordzhonikidzevsky, Leninsky and Frunzensky. First three are the largest and occupied. However all areas are anyhow connected with various historical events. Kharkov continues to grow and develop...  

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